Oligoclonal bands in Multiple Sclerosis

The analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an important component in the diagnostic criteria for MS. Oligoclonal bands (OCBs) occur in more than 90% of MS patients

Immune modulation - a rheumatologist perspective

Immune modulation involves a controlled alteration of the immune response to achieve a therapeutic benefit. Biologic therapies discussed here include medication made by molecular biologic techniques as well as small molecule inhibitors. In rheumatology the advent of biologic and targeted synthetic products have revolutionised the treatment and improved quality of live for patients living with these diseases. The challenge we face is cost of these drugs and some serious adverse effects in some patients. 

Psilocybin in Clinical Practice 2023

During February 2023 the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) approved MDMA and psilocybin as medicines making it the first country in the world to do so. They have been classified as a high schedule meaning they’re approved for controlled use when prescribed by a psychiatrist only. The TGA acknowledged there were few other options available for patients with specific treatment-resistant mental illnesses. Psilocybin in particular has been registered by the TGA for the management of treatment-resistant depression based on a groundbreaking research article published in the New England Journal of Medicine in November 2022.


Health Professions Council of South Africa


2 Clinical


Attempts allowed: 2

70% pass rate

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Neuron SA - Vol 16 No 3 - Issue 52 - 2023

2.0 CPD Points

Level 2