Female athlete - health and dysmenorrhea

Across life span, women experience multiple events associated with reproductive development such as menarche, menstruation, pregnancy, maternity, and menopause. Compared to developmental events in male reproduction, these events in female reproduction induce drastic physiological alterations (e.g., menstrual bleeding, physiological changes in pregnancy, breast feeding, menopausal hormone fluctuations), significant psychological changes and complex psychosocial and cultural consequences for women. 

Fit for Two: Exploring the science and benefits of exercise during pregnancy

Pregnancy is a joyous journey filled with physical changes and challenges. Physical activity (PA) during pregnancy contributes to maternal and fetal well-being, making the good days better and the bad days less so. As such, regular exercise is an essential component in improving maternal-fetal health.

Fibromyalgia impact, physical activity and quality of life

Prevalent amongst adult females, fibromyalgia is a chronic illness causing widespread musculoskeletal pain. Other commonly reported symptoms include tenderness, fatigue and depression. Studies have reported that these symptoms have a larger impact on the daily life of fibromyalgia patients compared to pain levels experienced.

Ethics of Substitution of Medicine: Balancing Health and Cost in South African Law

The intersection of medical ethics and the law often raises complex questions in the ever-evolving healthcare landscape. One such ethical concern arises in the realm of substituting medicines, particularly within the framework of South African law, as outlined in the MEDICINES AND RELATED SUBSTANCES ACT 101 OF 1965 (hereinafter referred to as “the Act”).


Health Professions Council of South Africa


2 Ethics


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Sports Pulse Vol 2 no 2 - 2023

2.0 CPD Points

Level 2