Introduction

Incidence and predictors of diabetes mellitus among severe COVID-19 patients in western Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study

According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report of July 1, 2021, COVID-19 has infected more than 182,319,261 people, of whom more than 3.9 million people have died. The rates of infection and death from COVID-19 vary significantly between developed and low-income countries. The United States of America (USA) is the region where the highest death rate due to COVID-19 was observed, followed by India and Mexico.

Thyroid paraganglioma – a rare entity

Thyroid paragangliomas (TPG) are rare neuroendocrine tumours that can create a diagnostic dilemma. Cytology and histopathology characteristics overlap with primary thyroid neoplasms, especially medullary thyroid carcinoma. Over the last 50 years there have been 76 reported cases, making this one of the rarest thyroid neoplasms (< 0.01%). The first documented case of a TPG was in 1964 by Van Miert.

Comparison of formulae for calculating the corrected QT (QTc) interval in an adult population attending a diabetes clinic at a rural hospital in South Africa.

Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (DM) leads to complications such as diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). DAN is an often neglected and not well-understood complication due to its asymptomatic nature, which has the possibility of resulting in sudden cardiac death. A well-researched manifestation of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN), which is characterised by devastating complications in the form of arrhythmias, silent myocardial ischaemia and sudden cardiac death. A recent study indicates that CAN is associated with prolonged QTc, which could be attributed to cases of sudden death.

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis: a presentation of hyperthyroidism increasing in frequency around the world

Hypokaleamic periodic paralysis is a rare, yet fascinating medical emergency typically affecting otherwise healthy young patients who present with painless, severe muscle weakness. Periodic paralysis should initially be divided into those caused by potassium shifts versus true potassium losses. Once true potassium gastrointestinal or renal losses have been excluded, two distinct forms of either hereditary or acquired periodic paralysis are described.

Lipid profiles of HIV-infected diabetic patients

Despite the devastation and disruption of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the period 2019–2022, the world is still grappling with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immune deficiency disorder syndrome (AIDS), a serious public health challenge. In 2020, 37.7 million people worldwide were HIV-infected. South Africa (SA) is considered the epicentre of the HIV pandemic with an overall prevalence of 13.7% (8.2 million) in 2021.

Clinical and ultrasound characteristics distinguishing benign and malignant thyroid nodules in Johannesburg, South Africa

A thyroid nodule on ultrasound is defined as a lesion that is distinct from the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. The prevalence of thyroid nodules has increased dramatically in recent years largely due to increased detection, related to the incidental finding of thyroid nodules during imaging for non-thyroid elated disorders using imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). The term ‘thyroid incidentaloma’ has been used for these nodules.

Accreditation

Health Professions Council of South Africa

MDB015/064/01/2023

3 Clinical

Certification

Attempts allowed: 2

70% pass rate





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Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa - 2023 Vol 28 No 2