Neuropathic Pain: When is it neuropathic pain and when to refer

Pain is one of the most common reasons to seek medical consultation. In 2020 the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) revised the definition of pain to “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with, or resembling that associated with, actual or potential tissue damage.” Pain can be divided into three categories, depending on the presence or absence of actual or potential tissue damage.

The importance of maintaining a healthy liver

The liver is the largest solid organ in the body and, as such, accounts for nearly one third of the body’s energy expenditure. Embryologically, in all vertebrates from fish to mammals, the liver is one of the first organs to develop and serves many critical metabolic functions including both production and storage of glucose.

The impact of stress on skin

Stress has long been recognised as a significant factor affecting both mental and physical health. Dermatologists are well aware of the close connection between psychological stress and various skin conditions. Recent research has shed light on the intricate relationship between stress and the onset, exacerbation, and maintenance of skin disorders such as psoriasis, eczema, and acne. This article aims to explore the impact of stress on the skin and delve into the mechanisms through which stress influences these conditions.


Health Professions Council of South Africa


2 Clinical 


Attempts allowed: 2

70% pass rate

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Pharmacy Focus Issue 11 - 2023

2.0 CPD Points

Level 2