Atrial fibrillation ablation in heart failure
The pathophysiology and risk factors of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) overlap. AF begets HF and 50% of patients have both, and prognosis is poorer. The traditional risk factors for HF, which include hypertension, diabetes, advancing age, coronary artery disease and obesity, also increase the risk of AF.
LDL cholesterol: How low can you go?
Every individual enters this world with an inherited burden of atherogenic ipoproteins. An average LDL cholesterol (LDLc) at birth is around 1.5 mmol. Thereafter, exposure to an environment that may include excess saturated fat intake, lack of physical exertion and weight gain leads to a progressive rise in LDL-c, adding an acquired component to the burden of atherogenic lipoprotein.
CTO intervention – what are the benefits? The latest evidence
Achronic total occlusion (CTO) of a coronary artery is defined as a 100% stenosis of the coronary artery resulting in thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 0 flow for more than three months. Coronary CTO was first described in the 1940’s and the first successful percutaneous intervention of a CTO lesion described in 1984.
The role of the regulator: The HPCSA disciplinary process
The HPCSA was established in law by the Health Professions Act 56 of 1974. This legislation is one of numerous statutory provisions regulating the healthcare sector and outlines the HPCSA’s various objectives, functions, and powers. The Health Professions Act also addresses the education, training, and registration of HCPs.
Health Professions Council of South Africa
Attempts allowed: 2
70% pass rate
Heart Matters Vol 14 No 1 - 2023