Access gate-related lower limb fractures in children and adolescents: a review of injury patterns and evaluation of associated injuries

Fenced yards and access gates are a common security feature in most homes in middle- to low-income countries, due to high levels of crime and house break-ins (Figure 1). It is the norm to find this kind of security measure in suburban and rural homes in these countries. The gates in these societies are often automatically operated (motorised) or manually operated (non-motorised). The accidental derailment and collapse of these gates may result in injuries during the operation (closing or opening) or climbing of the gate.

An audit on the accuracy of freehand acetabular cup positioning in total hip arthroplasty with the direct lateral approach at a tertiary institution over seven years

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is regarded as the most successful operation of the 20th century. A projected 572 000 THAs are expected to be performed over the next 20 years.  Postoperative complications such as dislocation, polyethylene liner fracture, osteolysis, impingement, limb length discrepancy, reduced range of motion and increased wear are attributable to various patient and surgical factors. Patient factors include body mass index, age, sex, and primary diagnosis for the THA. Surgical factors include surgeon experience, surgical approach, prosthetic design, acetabular component fixation method and orientation of the acetabular cup.

A retrospective comparative study of complications after total knee replacement in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients

The number of total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) has increased significantly from 2003 to 2013, with studies in Australia and the United States of America (US) estimating that by the year 2050, there will be a 276% increase in TKAs being performed each year. The most common conditions contributing to this burden are primary osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthropathies, and much attention has been paid to comparing them. Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) both require TKA at the end stage of disease; however, patient factors including age, sex and comorbidities, in addition to the disease processes, vary. Consequently, one would expect variability in outcomes between these groups. There has been an increase in the number of OA patients requiring TKA (almost doubling over 14 years in one US study), compared to RA, which in the US has decreased from 21% in 1991, to as low as 2.4% in 2014.

Retrospective audit of serum vitamin D levels in patients who underwent Latarjet procedure for anterior shoulder instability

Anterior shoulder dislocation is common, and nearly 50% of these patients are younger than the age of 30 years.1,2 About 85% of all anterior shoulder dislocations have an associated Bankart lesion, and Hill–Sachs lesion is present in all of the cases with recurrent dislocations. Recurrent shoulder dislocations have been reported to develop within two years of the initial injury and the risk of recurrence is higher in the younger patient population group, usually males and those who participate in contact sports or repeated overhead activities.2,3 Soft tissue repair (Bankart repair) and bone-block reconstruction procedures such as Latarjet are commonly performed stabilisation procedures for anterior shoulder instability.

The burden of road traffic accident-related trauma to orthopaedic healthcare and resource utilisation at a South African tertiary hospital: a cost analysis study

Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are one of the commonest causes of trauma globally and are ranked the ninth leading cause of mortality worldwide. RTAs have become a neglected global epidemic and they continue to rise, mostly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) like South Africa (SA). RTAs are the second most common cause of trauma in SA, the most common being interpersonal violence (IPV).

The mechanical testing of a novel interlocking forearm nail

The mechanical properties of implants are one of many factors that contribute to the mechanobiological environment for fracture healing. Mechanical testing of newly designed implants provides valuable insight into their mechanical properties. This provides surgeons with information about implant choice and the effect of the implant’s mechanical properties on fracture healing.

Truth or DAIR? A review of debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention

Total joint arthroplasty is a common intervention to relieve pain from advanced joint disease. With improvements in joint replacement surgery and increasing life expectancy, total joint arthroplasties are expected to increase with time. With escalating joint arthroplasty procedures, increased periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are expected. The incidence of PJI is estimated at 0.5–2%, with knee arthroplasty at 0.8–1.9% and hip arthroplasty at 0.3–1.7%.4,5 PJI is a devastating complication of total joint arthroplasty and significantly increases the burden on the patient, the surgeon and the healthcare system. Prolonged hospitalisation, multiple surgical procedures, psychological stressors of progressive disease, increased healthcare costs, loss of income and physical disability all add to the burden of PJI and reflect as diminished patient outcomes concerning morbidity, quality of life and mortality rates.

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South African Orthopaedic Journal - November 2022 Vol 21 No 4