Fever and rash in the returning traveller

Fever in the returning traveler is most likely due to infection, with potentially life-threatening infections such as malaria being the most critical to urgently investigate and treat. This article will rather focus on a diagnostic approach to the returning traveller with fever and rash and important causes thereof. Travel-related infectious diseases are commonly associated with skin lesions or rashes. Important aids to diagnosis are the nature of the lesion, distribution of the rash, appearance of the skin lesion in relation to the course of clinical illness, and the presence of other clinical signs and symptoms.

Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis

Globally, fungi cause over 150 million cases of severe diseases, with 1.7 million deaths occurring as a result. Invasive candidiasis (IC) specifically is the top ranking cause of acute invasive fungal infections, resulting in approximately three quarters of a million cases worldwide. Closer to home, in South Africa, it is estimated that candidaemia causes 9.6 cases per 100 000 population, or an estimate close to five and a half thousand cases.

The role of Amoxicillin-clavulanate and how best to use it for adults and children

The discovery and development of penicillin, the first commercially available antibiotic heralded the antibiotic era, and its introduction into clinical practice during World War II made the antibiotic treatment of many infections possible. It soon became clear, however, that penicillin had a limited spectrum of activity, and that it was ineffective against many of the Gram-negative organisms. Penicillinresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus also emerged soon after the introduction of penicillin, so that by the early 1950’s penicillin-resistant S. aureus had become pandemic.

Urogenital tuberculosis

This contribution attempts to highlight an often neglected presentation of tuberculosis. After tuberculous lymphadenitis and tuberculous pleural effusion, it is the third most common extrapulmonary presentation of tuberculosis.


Health Professions Councils of South Africa


2 Clinical


Attempts allowed: 2

70% pass rate

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Infectious Diseases Updates - 2022 Vol 11 no 2